A new area of the website is being developed to show my interest in endurance sport and nutrition. This area will grow significantly over the next few months so do please check back

Jason J Smith MD DMI FRCS(Gen.Surg)
Consultant Surgeon


Activities for JasonSmith

Glycaemic Index

The glycemic index (GI) is a number, typically between 50 and 100 indicating a particular food's effect on a person's blood glucose (sugar) level. A value of 100 represents an equivalent amount of pure glucose and represents the standard measurement.

Foods that break down and are absorbed quickly in the guts, rapidly releasing glucose into the blood tend to have a high GI. Those that breakdown and are absorbed more slowly and hence have a more gradual release of glucose into the blood tend to have a lower GI. A rapid release of glucose into the blood generates a spike in the hormone Insulin in order to bring blood sugar levels back to normal. Insulin is a stress hormone, and repeated spikes are not good for the body. There is some limited evidence that lower spikes in insulin lead to better long term blood sugar control.

GI is calculated by measuring blood sugar levels repeatedly over a 2-hour period after consuming 50g of the food (following a 12-hour fast) and then calculating the area under the curve over time. Comparison is then made to glucose and the result multiplied by 100. When compared to glucose as the standard (some tables use white bread) there will be a maximum GI of 100 and a minimum of 0. GI is then categorised into low, medium and high as below:

GI index Category
<=55 Low
56-69 Medium
>=70 High


Put simply, a low GI food will release glucose more slowly.

There are several problems with GI measurement and using it for dietary manipulation. Firstly the number of grams of carbohydrate consumed can have a bigger impact on blood sugar levels than the GI value of the food itself. GI also does not take into account the insulin response of the person to the food consumed. GI only tells us how quickly blood sugar rises and not how much of the carbohydrate consumed is turned to glucose.

An alternative and slightly better method is Glycaemic Load:

Glycaemic Load

The Glycaemic load (GL) will take into account not only the GI of the food, but also the amount consumed:

A good working example is to consider watermelon with a GI of 72. a 50g serving has 2.5g of carbohydrate and therefore has a GL of 1.8. A double portion still has a GI of 72 but a GL of 3.6. This clearly shows how GL is easier to interpret than GI. In general GL figures can be categorised as:

GL index Category
<=10 Low
11-19 Medium
>=20 High


Insulin Index

The insulin index (II) quantifies the typical insulin response to certain foodstuffs and is based on eating 1000Kj (approx 240 calories) of the food. The II and GI are well correlated, but foods high in protein, fat or refined carbohydrates elicit a disproportionately higher response than the glycaemic response.

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Mr Smith supports training courses provided by the Institute for Optimum Nutrition in Richmond, a small charitable organisation promoting health and nutrition. Please see www.ion.ac.uk/events for a full list of events and to be kept updated about future courses or contact short courses This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Days for the public:

Cancer focused food demonstration and education days: how to support yourself or loved ones  during and after cancer treatment. 
Digestive health food demonstration and education days: general advice and support to improve digestion.

Next ION Open Evening - 14 July 2015


Courses for health practitioners:

These provide a greater understanding of the links between cancer and nutrition for those in clinical practice  or for those involved in research, communication or awareness-raising activities.

Next  cancer and nutrition course: TBC

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BBC News - Health

16 January 2021

BBC News - Health BBC News - Health